10:09, 10 Сентябрь 2022

В NASA рассказали, как Марс лишился атмосферы: ее “выдули” солнечные ветры

Ученые на конференции в NASA рассказали о своих выводах относительно атмосферы на Марсе. Согласно мнению исследователей, когда-то на Красной планете могли сложиться условия для появления жизни, однако солнечные ветры с течением времени “выдули атмосферу” в космос.

Эти выводы были сделаны учеными во время наблюдения за солнечной бурей в марте 2015 года, когда выброс корональной массы закрутился вокруг планеты, разрядил газы в верхних слоях атмосферы, в результате чего те “испарились” в космос. Данные были получены зондом MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution – эволюция атмосферы и летучих веществ на Марсе).

NASA опубликовало видеозапись, на которой выстроена предполагаемая модель взаимодействия солнечных бурь и атмосферы Марса. Ученые отметили, что скорость “испарения” ионов увеличивается во время солнечных вспышек.

Измерения, проведенные зондом, показали, что солнечный ветер “отрывал от газов планеты “полосы” весом около 100 граммов”. “Как ежедневная кража из кассы нескольких монет: с течением времени потери становятся значительными”, – привел сравнение главный исследователь в Университете Колорадо Брюс Яковски. “Мы увидели, что атмосферная эрозия значительно увеличивается во время солнечных бурь, и считаем, что скорость потери атмосферы была намного выше миллиарды лет назад, когда солнце было молодым и более активным”, – подчеркнул он.

В статье Geophysical Research Letters отмечается, что Марс мог растерять часть своей атмосферы также из-за того, что обладает слабым магнитным полем.

По словам ученых, миллиарды лет назад на Марсе была достаточно плотная атмосфера, наполненная газами, которой было достаточно для разогрева планеты и поддержания воды в жидком состоянии. Кроме того, ландшафт Марса указывает на то, что когда-то ее покрывали океаны.

Также исследователи рассказали о недавно замеченном на Марсе сиянии. По их мнению, оно по своей природе не отличается от полярного сияния на Земле – только на Марсе вызвано не магнитными полюсами, а остаточным магнитным полем коры планеты. Поэтому “марсианское сияние”, которое обнаружилось на высоте 60 километров, более рассеянное и равномерно распределенное в атмосфере.

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